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JavaScript MCQ Practice Part 4

76. What's the output?
const { name: myName } = { name: 'Lydia' };

console.log(name);
  • A: "Lydia"
  • B: "myName"
  • C: undefined
  • D: ReferenceError
Answer

Answer: D

When we unpack the property name from the object on the right-hand side, we assign its value "Lydia" to a variable with the name myName.

With { name: myName }, we tell JavaScript that we want to create a new variable called myName with the value of the name property on the right-hand side.

Since we try to log name, a variable that is not defined, a ReferenceError gets thrown.


77. Is this a pure function?
function sum(a, b) {
  return a + b;
}
  • A: Yes
  • B: No
Answer

Answer: A

A pure function is a function that always returns the same result, if the same arguments are passed.

The sum function always returns the same result. If we pass 1 and 2, it will always return 3 without side effects. If we pass 5 and 10, it will always return 15, and so on. This is the definition of a pure function.


78. What is the output?
const add = () => {
  const cache = {};
  return num => {
    if (num in cache) {
      return `From cache! ${cache[num]}`;
    } else {
      const result = num + 10;
      cache[num] = result;
      return `Calculated! ${result}`;
    }
  };
};

const addFunction = add();
console.log(addFunction(10));
console.log(addFunction(10));
console.log(addFunction(5 * 2));
  • A: Calculated! 20 Calculated! 20 Calculated! 20
  • B: Calculated! 20 From cache! 20 Calculated! 20
  • C: Calculated! 20 From cache! 20 From cache! 20
  • D: Calculated! 20 From cache! 20 Error
Answer

Answer: C

The add function is a memoized function. With memoization, we can cache the results of a function in order to speed up its execution. In this case, we create a cache object that stores the previously returned values.

If we call the addFunction function again with the same argument, it first checks whether it has already gotten that value in its cache. If that's the case, the caches value will be returned, which saves on execution time. Else, if it's not cached, it will calculate the value and store it afterwards.

We call the addFunction function three times with the same value: on the first invocation, the value of the function when num is equal to 10 isn't cached yet. The condition of the if-statement num in cache returns false, and the else block gets executed: Calculated! 20 gets logged, and the value of the result gets added to the cache object. cache now looks like { 10: 20 }.

The second time, the cache object contains the value that gets returned for 10. The condition of the if-statement num in cache returns true, and 'From cache! 20' gets logged.

The third time, we pass 5 * 2 to the function which gets evaluated to 10. The cache object contains the value that gets returned for 10. The condition of the if-statement num in cache returns true, and 'From cache! 20' gets logged.


79. What is the output?
const myLifeSummedUp = ['☕', '💻', '🍷', '🍫'];

for (let item in myLifeSummedUp) {
  console.log(item);
}

for (let item of myLifeSummedUp) {
  console.log(item);
}
  • A: 0 1 2 3 and "☕" "💻" "🍷" "🍫"
  • B: "☕" "💻" "🍷" "🍫" and "☕" "💻" "🍷" "🍫"
  • C: "☕" "💻" "🍷" "🍫" and 0 1 2 3
  • D: 0 1 2 3 and {0: "☕", 1: "💻", 2: "🍷", 3: "🍫"}
Answer

Answer: A

With a for-in loop, we can iterate over enumerable properties. In an array, the enumerable properties are the "keys" of array elements, which are actually their indexes. You could see an array as:

{0: "☕", 1: "💻", 2: "🍷", 3: "🍫"}

Where the keys are the enumerable properties. 0 1 2 3 get logged.

With a for-of loop, we can iterate over iterables. An array is an iterable. When we iterate over the array, the variable "item" is equal to the element it's currently iterating over, "☕" "💻" "🍷" "🍫" get logged.


80. What is the output?
const list = [1 + 2, 1 * 2, 1 / 2];
console.log(list);
  • A: ["1 + 2", "1 * 2", "1 / 2"]
  • B: ["12", 2, 0.5]
  • C: [3, 2, 0.5]
  • D: [1, 1, 1]
Answer

Answer: C

Array elements can hold any value. Numbers, strings, objects, other arrays, null, boolean values, undefined, and other expressions such as dates, functions, and calculations.

The element will be equal to the returned value. 1 + 2 returns 3, 1 * 2 returns 2, and 1 / 2 returns 0.5.


81. What is the output?
function sayHi(name) {
  return `Hi there, ${name}`;
}

console.log(sayHi());
  • A: Hi there,
  • B: Hi there, undefined
  • C: Hi there, null
  • D: ReferenceError
Answer

Answer: B

By default, arguments have the value of undefined, unless a value has been passed to the function. In this case, we didn't pass a value for the name argument. name is equal to undefined which gets logged.

In ES6, we can overwrite this default undefined value with default parameters. For example:

function sayHi(name = "Lydia") { ... }

In this case, if we didn't pass a value or if we passed undefined, name would always be equal to the string Lydia


82. What is the output?
var status = '😎';

setTimeout(() => {
  const status = '😍';

  const data = {
    status: '🥑',
    getStatus() {
      return this.status;
    },
  };

  console.log(data.getStatus());
  console.log(data.getStatus.call(this));
}, 0);
  • A: "🥑" and "😍"
  • B: "🥑" and "😎"
  • C: "😍" and "😎"
  • D: "😎" and "😎"
Answer

Answer: B

The value of the this keyword is dependent on where you use it. In a method, like the getStatus method, the this keyword refers to the object that the method belongs to. The method belongs to the data object, so this refers to the data object. When we log this.status, the status property on the data object gets logged, which is "🥑".

With the call method, we can change the object to which the this keyword refers. In functions, the this keyword refers to the the object that the function belongs to. We declared the setTimeout function on the global object, so within the setTimeout function, the this keyword refers to the global object. On the global object, there is a variable called status with the value of "😎". When logging this.status, "😎" gets logged.


83. What is the output?
const person = {
  name: 'Lydia',
  age: 21,
};

let city = person.city;
city = 'Amsterdam';

console.log(person);
  • A: { name: "Lydia", age: 21 }
  • B: { name: "Lydia", age: 21, city: "Amsterdam" }
  • C: { name: "Lydia", age: 21, city: undefined }
  • D: "Amsterdam"
Answer

Answer: A

We set the variable city equal to the value of the property called city on the person object. There is no property on this object called city, so the variable city has the value of undefined.

Note that we are not referencing the person object itself! We simply set the variable city equal to the current value of the city property on the person object.

Then, we set city equal to the string "Amsterdam". This doesn't change the person object: there is no reference to that object.

When logging the person object, the unmodified object gets returned.


84. What is the output?
function checkAge(age) {
  if (age < 18) {
    const message = "Sorry, you're too young.";
  } else {
    const message = "Yay! You're old enough!";
  }

  return message;
}

console.log(checkAge(21));
  • A: "Sorry, you're too young."
  • B: "Yay! You're old enough!"
  • C: ReferenceError
  • D: undefined
Answer

Answer: C

Variables with the const and let keyword are block-scoped. A block is anything between curly brackets ({ }). In this case, the curly brackets of the if/else statements. You cannot reference a variable outside of the block it's declared in, a ReferenceError gets thrown.


85. What kind of information would get logged?
fetch('https://www.website.com/api/user/1')
  .then(res => res.json())
  .then(res => console.log(res));
  • A: The result of the fetch method.
  • B: The result of the second invocation of the fetch method.
  • C: The result of the callback in the previous .then().
  • D: It would always be undefined.
Answer

Answer: C

The value of res in the second .then is equal to the returned value of the previous .then. You can keep chaining .thens like this, where the value is passed to the next handler.


86. Which option is a way to set hasName equal to true, provided you cannot pass true as an argument?
function getName(name) {
  const hasName = //
}
  • A: !!name
  • B: name
  • C: new Boolean(name)
  • D: name.length
Answer

Answer: A

With !!name, we determine whether the value of name is truthy or falsy. If name is truthy, which we want to test for, !name returns false. !false (which is what !!name practically is) returns true.

By setting hasName equal to name, you set hasName equal to whatever value you passed to the getName function, not the boolean value true.

new Boolean(true) returns an object wrapper, not the boolean value itself.

name.length returns the length of the passed argument, not whether it's true.


87. What's the output?
console.log('I want pizza'[0]);
  • A: """
  • B: "I"
  • C: SyntaxError
  • D: undefined
Answer

Answer: B

In order to get an character on a specific index in a string, you can use bracket notation. The first character in the string has index 0, and so on. In this case we want to get the element which index is 0, the character "I', which gets logged.

Note that this method is not supported in IE7 and below. In that case, use .charAt()


88. What's the output?
function sum(num1, num2 = num1) {
  console.log(num1 + num2);
}

sum(10);
  • A: NaN
  • B: 20
  • C: ReferenceError
  • D: undefined
Answer

Answer: B

You can set a default parameter's value equal to another parameter of the function, as long as they've been defined before the default parameter. We pass the value 10 to the sum function. If the sum function only receives 1 argument, it means that the value for num2 is not passed, and the value of num1 is equal to the passed value 10 in this case. The default value of num2 is the value of num1, which is 10. num1 + num2 returns 20.

If you're trying to set a default parameter's value equal to a parameter which is defined after (to the right), the parameter's value hasn't been initialized yet, which will throw an error.


89. What's the output?
// module.js
export default () => 'Hello world';
export const name = 'Lydia';

// index.js
import * as data from './module';

console.log(data);
  • A: { default: function default(), name: "Lydia" }
  • B: { default: function default() }
  • C: { default: "Hello world", name: "Lydia" }
  • D: Global object of module.js
Answer

Answer: A

With the import * as name syntax, we import all exports from the module.js file into the index.js file as a new object called data is created. In the module.js file, there are two exports: the default export, and a named export. The default export is a function which returns the string "Hello World", and the named export is a variable called name which has the value of the string "Lydia".

The data object has a default property for the default export, other properties have the names of the named exports and their corresponding values.


90. What's the output?
class Person {
  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }
}

const member = new Person('John');
console.log(typeof member);
  • A: "class"
  • B: "function"
  • C: "object"
  • D: "string"
Answer

Answer: C

Classes are syntactical sugar for function constructors. The equivalent of the Person class as a function constructor would be:

function Person() {
  this.name = name;
}

Calling a function constructor with new results in the creation of an instance of Person, typeof keyword returns "object" for an instance. typeof member returns "object".


91. What's the output?
let newList = [1, 2, 3].push(4);

console.log(newList.push(5));
  • A: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
  • B: [1, 2, 3, 5]
  • C: [1, 2, 3, 4]
  • D: Error
Answer

Answer: D

The .push method returns the new length of the array, not the array itself! By setting newList equal to [1, 2, 3].push(4), we set newList equal to the new length of the array: 4.

Then, we try to use the .push method on newList. Since newList is the numerical value 4, we cannot use the .push method: a TypeError is thrown.


92. What's the output?
function giveLydiaPizza() {
  return 'Here is pizza!';
}

const giveLydiaChocolate = () =>
  "Here's chocolate... now go hit the gym already.";

console.log(giveLydiaPizza.prototype);
console.log(giveLydiaChocolate.prototype);
  • A: { constructor: ...} { constructor: ...}
  • B: {} { constructor: ...}
  • C: { constructor: ...} {}
  • D: { constructor: ...} undefined
Answer

Answer: D

Regular functions, such as the giveLydiaPizza function, have a prototype property, which is an object (prototype object) with a constructor property. Arrow functions however, such as the giveLydiaChocolate function, do not have this prototype property. undefined gets returned when trying to access the prototype property using giveLydiaChocolate.prototype.


93. What's the output?
const person = {
  name: 'Lydia',
  age: 21,
};

for (const [x, y] of Object.entries(person)) {
  console.log(x, y);
}
  • A: name Lydia and age 21
  • B: ["name", "Lydia"] and ["age", 21]
  • C: ["name", "age"] and undefined
  • D: Error
Answer

Answer: A

Object.entries(person) returns an array of nested arrays, containing the keys and objects:

[ [ 'name', 'Lydia' ], [ 'age', 21 ] ]

Using the for-of loop, we can iterate over each element in the array, the subarrays in this case. We can destructure the subarrays instantly in the for-of loop, using const [x, y]. x is equal to the first element in the subarray, y is equal to the second element in the subarray.

The first subarray is [ "name", "Lydia" ], with x equal to "name", and y equal to "Lydia", which get logged. The second subarray is [ "age", 21 ], with x equal to "age", and y equal to 21, which get logged.


94. What's the output?
function getItems(fruitList, ...args, favoriteFruit) {
  return [...fruitList, ...args, favoriteFruit]
}

getItems(["banana", "apple"], "pear", "orange")
  • A: ["banana", "apple", "pear", "orange"]
  • B: [["banana", "apple"], "pear", "orange"]
  • C: ["banana", "apple", ["pear"], "orange"]
  • D: SyntaxError
Answer

Answer: D

...args is a rest parameter. The rest parameter's value is an array containing all remaining arguments, and can only be the last parameter! In this example, the rest parameter was the second parameter. This is not possible, and will throw a syntax error.

function getItems(fruitList, favoriteFruit, ...args) {
  return [...fruitList, ...args, favoriteFruit];
}

getItems(['banana', 'apple'], 'pear', 'orange');

The above example works. This returns the array [ 'banana', 'apple', 'orange', 'pear' ]


95. What's the output?
function nums(a, b) {
  if (a > b) console.log('a is bigger');
  else console.log('b is bigger');
  return;
  a + b;
}

console.log(nums(4, 2));
console.log(nums(1, 2));
  • A: a is bigger, 6 and b is bigger, 3
  • B: a is bigger, undefined and b is bigger, undefined
  • C: undefined and undefined
  • D: SyntaxError
Answer

Answer: B

In JavaScript, we don't have to write the semicolon (;) explicitly, however the JavaScript engine still adds them after statements. This is called Automatic Semicolon Insertion. A statement can for example be variables, or keywords like throw, return, break, etc.

Here, we wrote a return statement, and another value a + b on a new line. However, since it's a new line, the engine doesn't know that it's actually the value that we wanted to return. Instead, it automatically added a semicolon after return. You could see this as:

return;
a + b;

This means that a + b is never reached, since a function stops running after the return keyword. If no value gets returned, like here, the function returns undefined. Note that there is no automatic insertion after if/else statements!


96. What's the output?
class Person {
  constructor() {
    this.name = 'Lydia';
  }
}

Person = class AnotherPerson {
  constructor() {
    this.name = 'Sarah';
  }
};

const member = new Person();
console.log(member.name);
  • A: "Lydia"
  • B: "Sarah"
  • C: Error: cannot redeclare Person
  • D: SyntaxError
Answer

Answer: B

We can set classes equal to other classes/function constructors. In this case, we set Person equal to AnotherPerson. The name on this constructor is Sarah, so the name property on the new Person instance member is "Sarah".


97. What's the output?
const info = {
  [Symbol('a')]: 'b',
};

console.log(info);
console.log(Object.keys(info));
  • A: {Symbol('a'): 'b'} and ["{Symbol('a')"]
  • B: {} and []
  • C: { a: "b" } and ["a"]
  • D: {Symbol('a'): 'b'} and []
Answer

Answer: D

A Symbol is not enumerable. The Object.keys method returns all enumerable key properties on an object. The Symbol won't be visible, and an empty array is returned. When logging the entire object, all properties will be visible, even non-enumerable ones.

This is one of the many qualities of a symbol: besides representing an entirely unique value (which prevents accidental name collision on objects, for example when working with 2 libraries that want to add properties to the same object), you can also "hide" properties on objects this way (although not entirely. You can still access symbols using the Object.getOwnPropertySymbols() method).


98. What's the output?
const getList = ([x, ...y]) => [x, y]
const getUser = user => { name: user.name, age: user.age }

const list = [1, 2, 3, 4]
const user = { name: "Lydia", age: 21 }

console.log(getList(list))
console.log(getUser(user))
  • A: [1, [2, 3, 4]] and undefined
  • B: [1, [2, 3, 4]] and { name: "Lydia", age: 21 }
  • C: [1, 2, 3, 4] and { name: "Lydia", age: 21 }
  • D: Error and { name: "Lydia", age: 21 }
Answer

Answer: A

The getList function receives an array as its argument. Between the parentheses of the getList function, we destructure this array right away. You could see this as:

[x, ...y] = [1, 2, 3, 4]

With the rest parameter ...y, we put all "remaining" arguments in an array. The remaining arguments are 2, 3 and 4 in this case. The value of y is an array, containing all the rest parameters. The value of x is equal to 1 in this case, so when we log [x, y], [1, [2, 3, 4]] gets logged.

The getUser function receives an object. With arrow functions, we don't have to write curly brackets if we just return one value. However, if you want to return an object from an arrow function, you have to write it between parentheses, otherwise no value gets returned! The following function would have returned an object:

const getUser = user => ({ name: user.name, age: user.age })

Since no value gets returned in this case, the function returns undefined.


99. What's the output?
const name = 'Lydia';

console.log(name());
  • A: SyntaxError
  • B: ReferenceError
  • C: TypeError
  • D: undefined
Answer

Answer: C

The variable name holds the value of a string, which is not a function, thus cannot invoke.

TypeErrors get thrown when a value is not of the expected type. JavaScript expected name to be a function since we're trying to invoke it. It was a string however, so a TypeError gets thrown: name is not a function!

SyntaxErrors get thrown when you've written something that isn't valid JavaScript, for example when you've written the word return as retrun. ReferenceErrors get thrown when JavaScript isn't able to find a reference to a value that you're trying to access.


100. What's the value of output?
// 🎉✨ This is my 100th question! ✨🎉

const output = `${[] && 'Im'}possible!
You should${'' && `n't`} see a therapist after so much JavaScript lol`;
  • A: possible! You should see a therapist after so much JavaScript lol
  • B: Impossible! You should see a therapist after so much JavaScript lol
  • C: possible! You shouldn't see a therapist after so much JavaScript lol
  • D: Impossible! You shouldn't see a therapist after so much JavaScript lol
Answer

Answer: B

[] is a truthy value. With the && operator, the right-hand value will be returned if the left-hand value is a truthy value. In this case, the left-hand value [] is a truthy value, so "Im' gets returned.

"" is a falsy value. If the left-hand value is falsy, nothing gets returned. n't doesn't get returned.


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