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JavaScript MCQ Practice Part 3

51. What's the output?
function getInfo(member, year) {
  member.name = 'Lydia';
  year = '1998';
}

const person = { name: 'Sarah' };
const birthYear = '1997';

getInfo(person, birthYear);

console.log(person, birthYear);
  • A: { name: "Lydia" }, "1997"
  • B: { name: "Sarah" }, "1998"
  • C: { name: "Lydia" }, "1998"
  • D: { name: "Sarah" }, "1997"
Answer

Answer: A

Arguments are passed by value, unless their value is an object, then they're passed by reference. birthYear is passed by value, since it's a string, not an object. When we pass arguments by value, a copy of that value is created (see question 46).

The variable birthYear has a reference to the value "1997". The argument year also has a reference to the value "1997", but it's not the same value as birthYear has a reference to. When we update the value of year by setting year equal to "1998", we are only updating the value of year. birthYear is still equal to "1997".

The value of person is an object. The argument member has a (copied) reference to the same object. When we modify a property of the object member has a reference to, the value of person will also be modified, since they both have a reference to the same object. person's name property is now equal to the value "Lydia"


52. What's the output?
function greeting() {
  throw 'Hello world!';
}

function sayHi() {
  try {
    const data = greeting();
    console.log('It worked!', data);
  } catch (e) {
    console.log('Oh no an error:', e);
  }
}

sayHi();
  • A: It worked! Hello world!
  • B: Oh no an error: undefined
  • C: SyntaxError: can only throw Error objects
  • D: Oh no an error: Hello world!
Answer

Answer: D

With the throw statement, we can create custom errors. With this statement, you can throw exceptions. An exception can be a string, a number, a boolean or an object. In this case, our exception is the string 'Hello world'.

With the catch statement, we can specify what to do if an exception is thrown in the try block. An exception is thrown: the string 'Hello world'. e is now equal to that string, which we log. This results in 'Oh an error: Hello world'.


53. What's the output?
function Car() {
  this.make = 'Lamborghini';
  return { make: 'Maserati' };
}

const myCar = new Car();
console.log(myCar.make);
  • A: "Lamborghini"
  • B: "Maserati"
  • C: ReferenceError
  • D: TypeError
Answer

Answer: B

When you return a property, the value of the property is equal to the returned value, not the value set in the constructor function. We return the string "Maserati", so myCar.make is equal to "Maserati".


54. What's the output?
(() => {
  let x = (y = 10);
})();

console.log(typeof x);
console.log(typeof y);
  • A: "undefined", "number"
  • B: "number", "number"
  • C: "object", "number"
  • D: "number", "undefined"
Answer

Answer: A

let x = y = 10; is actually shorthand for:

y = 10;
let x = y;

When we set y equal to 10, we actually add a property y to the global object (window in browser, global in Node). In a browser, window.y is now equal to 10.

Then, we declare a variable x with the value of y, which is 10. Variables declared with the let keyword are block scoped, they are only defined within the block they're declared in; the immediately-invoked function (IIFE) in this case. When we use the typeof operator, the operand x is not defined: we are trying to access x outside of the block it's declared in. This means that x is not defined. Values who haven't been assigned a value or declared are of type "undefined". console.log(typeof x) returns "undefined".

However, we created a global variable y when setting y equal to 10. This value is accessible anywhere in our code. y is defined, and holds a value of type "number". console.log(typeof y) returns "number".


55. What's the output?
class Dog {
  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }
}

Dog.prototype.bark = function() {
  console.log(`Woof I am ${this.name}`);
};

const pet = new Dog('Mara');

pet.bark();

delete Dog.prototype.bark;

pet.bark();
  • A: "Woof I am Mara", TypeError
  • B: "Woof I am Mara", "Woof I am Mara"
  • C: "Woof I am Mara", undefined
  • D: TypeError, TypeError
Answer

Answer: A

We can delete properties from objects using the delete keyword, also on the prototype. By deleting a property on the prototype, it is not available anymore in the prototype chain. In this case, the bark function is not available anymore on the prototype after delete Dog.prototype.bark, yet we still try to access it.

When we try to invoke something that is not a function, a TypeError is thrown. In this case TypeError: pet.bark is not a function, since pet.bark is undefined.


56. What's the output?
const set = new Set([1, 1, 2, 3, 4]);

console.log(set);
  • A: [1, 1, 2, 3, 4]
  • B: [1, 2, 3, 4]
  • C: {1, 1, 2, 3, 4}
  • D: {1, 2, 3, 4}
Answer

Answer: D

The Set object is a collection of unique values: a value can only occur once in a set.

We passed the iterable [1, 1, 2, 3, 4] with a duplicate value 1. Since we cannot have two of the same values in a set, one of them is removed. This results in {1, 2, 3, 4}.


57. What's the output?
// counter.js
let counter = 10;
export default counter;
// index.js
import myCounter from './counter';

myCounter += 1;

console.log(myCounter);
  • A: 10
  • B: 11
  • C: Error
  • D: NaN
Answer

Answer: C

An imported module is read-only: you cannot modify the imported module. Only the module that exports them can change its value.

When we try to increment the value of myCounter, it throws an error: myCounter is read-only and cannot be modified.


58. What's the output?
const name = 'Lydia';
age = 21;

console.log(delete name);
console.log(delete age);
  • A: false, true
  • B: "Lydia", 21
  • C: true, true
  • D: undefined, undefined
Answer

Answer: A

The delete operator returns a boolean value: true on a successful deletion, else it'll return false. However, variables declared with the var, const or let keyword cannot be deleted using the delete operator.

The name variable was declared with a const keyword, so its deletion is not successful: false is returned. When we set age equal to 21, we actually added a property called age to the global object. You can successfully delete properties from objects this way, also the global object, so delete age returns true.


59. What's the output?
const numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
const [y] = numbers;

console.log(y);
  • A: [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]]
  • B: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
  • C: 1
  • D: [1]
Answer

Answer: C

We can unpack values from arrays or properties from objects through destructuring. For example:

[a, b] = [1, 2];

The value of a is now 1, and the value of b is now 2. What we actually did in the question, is:

[y] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

This means that the value of y is equal to the first value in the array, which is the number 1. When we log y, 1 is returned.


60. What's the output?
const user = { name: 'Lydia', age: 21 };
const admin = { admin: true, ...user };

console.log(admin);
  • A: { admin: true, user: { name: "Lydia", age: 21 } }
  • B: { admin: true, name: "Lydia", age: 21 }
  • C: { admin: true, user: ["Lydia", 21] }
  • D: { admin: true }
Answer

Answer: B

It's possible to combine objects using the spread operator .... It lets you create copies of the key/value pairs of one object, and add them to another object. In this case, we create copies of the user object, and add them to the admin object. The admin object now contains the copied key/value pairs, which results in { admin: true, name: "Lydia", age: 21 }.


61. What's the output?
const person = { name: 'Lydia' };

Object.defineProperty(person, 'age', { value: 21 });

console.log(person);
console.log(Object.keys(person));
  • A: { name: "Lydia", age: 21 }, ["name", "age"]
  • B: { name: "Lydia", age: 21 }, ["name"]
  • C: { name: "Lydia"}, ["name", "age"]
  • D: { name: "Lydia"}, ["age"]
Answer

Answer: B

With the defineProperty method, we can add new properties to an object, or modify existing ones. When we add a property to an object using the defineProperty method, they are by default not enumerable. The Object.keys method returns all enumerable property names from an object, in this case only "name".

Properties added using the defineProperty method are immutable by default. You can override this behavior using the writable, configurable and enumerable properties. This way, the defineProperty method gives you a lot more control over the properties you're adding to an object.


62. What's the output?
const settings = {
  username: 'lydiahallie',
  level: 19,
  health: 90,
};

const data = JSON.stringify(settings, ['level', 'health']);
console.log(data);
  • A: "{"level":19, "health":90}"
  • B: "{"username": "lydiahallie"}"
  • C: "["level", "health"]"
  • D: "{"username": "lydiahallie", "level":19, "health":90}"
Answer

Answer: A

The second argument of JSON.stringify is the replacer. The replacer can either be a function or an array, and lets you control what and how the values should be stringified.

If the replacer is an array, only the property names included in the array will be added to the JSON string. In this case, only the properties with the names "level" and "health" are included, "username" is excluded. data is now equal to "{"level":19, "health":90}".

If the replacer is a function, this function gets called on every property in the object you're stringifying. The value returned from this function will be the value of the property when it's added to the JSON string. If the value is undefined, this property is excluded from the JSON string.


63. What's the output?
let num = 10;

const increaseNumber = () => num++;
const increasePassedNumber = number => number++;

const num1 = increaseNumber();
const num2 = increasePassedNumber(num1);

console.log(num1);
console.log(num2);
  • A: 10, 10
  • B: 10, 11
  • C: 11, 11
  • D: 11, 12
Answer

Answer: A

The unary operator ++ first returns the value of the operand, then increments the value of the operand. The value of num1 is 10, since the increaseNumber function first returns the value of num, which is 10, and only increments the value of num afterwards.

num2 is 10, since we passed num1 to the increasePassedNumber. number is equal to 10(the value of num1. Again, the unary operator ++ first returns the value of the operand, then increments the value of the operand. The value of number is 10, so num2 is equal to 10.


64. What's the output?
const value = { number: 10 };

const multiply = (x = { ...value }) => {
  console.log((x.number *= 2));
};

multiply();
multiply();
multiply(value);
multiply(value);
  • A: 20, 40, 80, 160
  • B: 20, 40, 20, 40
  • C: 20, 20, 20, 40
  • D: NaN, NaN, 20, 40
Answer

Answer: C

In ES6, we can initialize parameters with a default value. The value of the parameter will be the default value, if no other value has been passed to the function, or if the value of the parameter is "undefined". In this case, we spread the properties of the value object into a new object, so x has the default value of { number: 10 }.

The default argument is evaluated at call time! Every time we call the function, a new object is created. We invoke the multiply function the first two times without passing a value: x has the default value of { number: 10 }. We then log the multiplied value of that number, which is 20.

The third time we invoke multiply, we do pass an argument: the object called value. The *= operator is actually shorthand for x.number = x.number * 2: we modify the value of x.number, and log the multiplied value 20.

The fourth time, we pass the value object again. x.number was previously modified to 20, so x.number *= 2 logs 40.


65. What's the output?
[1, 2, 3, 4].reduce((x, y) => console.log(x, y));
  • A: 1 2 and 3 3 and 6 4
  • B: 1 2 and 2 3 and 3 4
  • C: 1 undefined and 2 undefined and 3 undefined and 4 undefined
  • D: 1 2 and undefined 3 and undefined 4
Answer

Answer: D

The first argument that the reduce method receives is the accumulator, x in this case. The second argument is the current value, y. With the reduce method, we execute a callback function on every element in the array, which could ultimately result in one single value.

In this example, we are not returning any values, we are simply logging the values of the accumulator and the current value.

The value of the accumulator is equal to the previously returned value of the callback function. If you don't pass the optional initialValue argument to the reduce method, the accumulator is equal to the first element on the first call.

On the first call, the accumulator (x) is 1, and the current value (y) is 2. We don't return from the callback function, we log the accumulator and current value: 1 and 2 get logged.

If you don't return a value from a function, it returns undefined. On the next call, the accumulator is undefined, and the current value is 3. undefined and 3 get logged.

On the fourth call, we again don't return from the callback function. The accumulator is again undefined, and the current value is 4. undefined and 4 get logged.

---
66. With which constructor can we successfully extend the Dog class?
class Dog {
  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }
};

class Labrador extends Dog {
  // 1
  constructor(name, size) {
    this.size = size;
  }
  // 2
  constructor(name, size) {
    super(name);
    this.size = size;
  }
  // 3
  constructor(size) {
    super(name);
    this.size = size;
  }
  // 4
  constructor(name, size) {
    this.name = name;
    this.size = size;
  }

};
  • A: 1
  • B: 2
  • C: 3
  • D: 4
Answer

Answer: B

In a derived class, you cannot access the this keyword before calling super. If you try to do that, it will throw a ReferenceError: 1 and 4 would throw a reference error.

With the super keyword, we call that parent class's constructor with the given arguments. The parent's constructor receives the name argument, so we need to pass name to super.

The Labrador class receives two arguments, name since it extends Dog, and size as an extra property on the Labrador class. They both need to be passed to the constructor function on Labrador, which is done correctly using constructor 2.


67. What's the output?
// index.js
console.log('running index.js');
import { sum } from './sum.js';
console.log(sum(1, 2));

// sum.js
console.log('running sum.js');
export const sum = (a, b) => a + b;
  • A: running index.js, running sum.js, 3
  • B: running sum.js, running index.js, 3
  • C: running sum.js, 3, running index.js
  • D: running index.js, undefined, running sum.js
Answer

Answer: B

With the import keyword, all imported modules are pre-parsed. This means that the imported modules get run first, the code in the file which imports the module gets executed after.

This is a difference between require() in CommonJS and import! With require(), you can load dependencies on demand while the code is being run. If we would have used require instead of import, running index.js, running sum.js, 3 would have been logged to the console.


68. What's the output?
console.log(Number(2) === Number(2));
console.log(Boolean(false) === Boolean(false));
console.log(Symbol('foo') === Symbol('foo'));
  • A: true, true, false
  • B: false, true, false
  • C: true, false, true
  • D: true, true, true
Answer

Answer: A

Every Symbol is entirely unique. The purpose of the argument passed to the Symbol is to give the Symbol a description. The value of the Symbol is not dependent on the passed argument. As we test equality, we are creating two entirely new symbols: the first Symbol('foo'), and the second Symbol('foo'). These two values are unique and not equal to each other, Symbol('foo') === Symbol('foo') returns false.


69. What's the output?
const name = 'Lydia Hallie';
console.log(name.padStart(13));
console.log(name.padStart(2));
  • A: "Lydia Hallie", "Lydia Hallie"
  • B: " Lydia Hallie", " Lydia Hallie" ("[13x whitespace]Lydia Hallie", "[2x whitespace]Lydia Hallie")
  • C: " Lydia Hallie", "Lydia Hallie" ("[1x whitespace]Lydia Hallie", "Lydia Hallie")
  • D: "Lydia Hallie", "Lyd",
Answer

Answer: C

With the padStart method, we can add padding to the beginning of a string. The value passed to this method is the total length of the string together with the padding. The string "Lydia Hallie" has a length of 12. name.padStart(13) inserts 1 space at the start of the string, because 12 + 1 is 13.

If the argument passed to the padStart method is smaller than the length of the array, no padding will be added.


70. What's the output?
console.log('🥑' + '💻');
  • A: "🥑💻"
  • B: 257548
  • C: A string containing their code points
  • D: Error
Answer

Answer: A

With the + operator, you can concatenate strings. In this case, we are concatenating the string "🥑" with the string "💻", resulting in "🥑💻".


71. How can we log the values that are commented out after the console.log statement?
function* startGame() {
  const answer = yield 'Do you love JavaScript?';
  if (answer !== 'Yes') {
    return "Oh wow... Guess we're gone here";
  }
  return 'JavaScript loves you back ❤️';
}

const game = startGame();
console.log(/* 1 */); // Do you love JavaScript?
console.log(/* 2 */); // JavaScript loves you back ❤️
  • A: game.next("Yes").value and game.next().value
  • B: game.next.value("Yes") and game.next.value()
  • C: game.next().value and game.next("Yes").value
  • D: game.next.value() and game.next.value("Yes")
Answer

Answer: C

A generator function "pauses" its execution when it sees the yield keyword. First, we have to let the function yield the string "Do you love JavaScript?", which can be done by calling game.next().value.

Every line is executed, until it finds the first yield keyword. There is a yield keyword on the first line within the function: the execution stops with the first yield! This means that the variable answer is not defined yet!

When we call game.next("Yes").value, the previous yield is replaced with the value of the parameters passed to the next() function, "Yes" in this case. The value of the variable answer is now equal to "Yes". The condition of the if-statement returns false, and JavaScript loves you back ❤️ gets logged.


72. What's the output?
console.log(String.raw`Hello\nworld`);
  • A: Hello world!
  • B: Hello
         world
  • C: Hello\nworld
  • D: Hello\n
         world
Answer

Answer: C

String.raw returns a string where the escapes (\n, \v, \t etc.) are ignored! Backslashes can be an issue since you could end up with something like:

const path = `C:\Documents\Projects\table.html`

Which would result in:

"C:DocumentsProjects able.html"

With String.raw, it would simply ignore the escape and print:

C:\Documents\Projects\table.html

In this case, the string is Hello\nworld, which gets logged.


73. What's the output?
async function getData() {
  return await Promise.resolve('I made it!');
}

const data = getData();
console.log(data);
  • A: "I made it!"
  • B: Promise {<resolved>: "I made it!"}
  • C: Promise {<pending>}
  • D: undefined
Answer

Answer: C

An async function always returns a promise. The await still has to wait for the promise to resolve: a pending promise gets returned when we call getData() in order to set data equal to it.

If we wanted to get access to the resolved value "I made it", we could have used the .then() method on data:

data.then(res => console.log(res))

This would've logged "I made it!"


74. What's the output?
function addToList(item, list) {
  return list.push(item);
}

const result = addToList('apple', ['banana']);
console.log(result);
  • A: ['apple', 'banana']
  • B: 2
  • C: true
  • D: undefined
Answer

Answer: B

The .push() method returns the length of the new array! Previously, the array contained one element (the string "banana") and had a length of 1. After adding the string "apple" to the array, the array contains two elements, and has a length of 2. This gets returned from the addToList function.

The push method modifies the original array. If you wanted to return the array from the function rather than the length of the array, you should have returned list after pushing item to it.


75. What's the output?
const box = { x: 10, y: 20 };

Object.freeze(box);

const shape = box;
shape.x = 100;

console.log(shape);
  • A: { x: 100, y: 20 }
  • B: { x: 10, y: 20 }
  • C: { x: 100 }
  • D: ReferenceError
Answer

Answer: B

Object.freeze makes it impossible to add, remove, or modify properties of an object (unless the property's value is another object).

When we create the variable shape and set it equal to the frozen object box, shape also refers to a frozen object. You can check whether an object is frozen by using Object.isFrozen. In this case, Object.isFrozen(shape) returns true, since the variable shape has a reference to a frozen object.

Since shape is frozen, and since the value of x is not an object, we cannot modify the property x. x is still equal to 10, and { x: 10, y: 20 } gets logged.


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